The analysis considered the following child outcomes:
- Cognitive development:
- language skills
- non-verbal ability
- Socio-emotional problems:
- externalising behaviour (e.g. child loses temper, argues with other children)
- internalising behaviour (e.g. child is easily upset, is anxious)
- Socio-emotional strengths:
- sociability (e.g. child has friends, plays with other children)
- prosocial behaviour (e.g. child is co-operative, is helpful, shares things)
- behavioural self-regulation (e.g. child follows instructions, waits their turn)
- cognitive self-regulation (e.g. child choses their own tasks, persists with tasks)
- emotional self-regulation (e.g. child is calm, keeps temper)
- Progress at school
- Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP) total score (teacher assessment at the end of reception year)
Home environment factors
Nine home environment factors were included in the analyses:
- Home Learning Environment (HLE) index (learning activities in home: e.g. parents read with child, child draws/paints at home)
- Household Disorder (e.g. house is noisy, house is disorganised).
- Parent’s Psychological Distress (e.g. symptoms of depression or anxiety).
- Limit Setting (i.e. how often parents set limits on their child’s behaviour).
- Warmth (closeness in the parent/child relationship: e.g. relationship is affectionate, parent and child do things together).
- Invasiveness (conflict in the parent/child relationship: e.g. parent finds child annoying).
- Authoritative parenting, characterized by high demands / high responsiveness.
- Authoritarian parenting, characterized by high demands / low responsiveness.
- Permissive parenting, characterized by low demands / low or high responsiveness.
For more information please refer to the full report.